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The village outwardly looked much calmer city. In the period of the world

The war in the territory of Oryol Province was not agrarian unrest.

Affected by the departure to the front of the most active part of the male population,

relatively good yields of the war years, suspension in the spring of 1915

Stolypin agrarian reform.

When describing the pre-revolutionary period, very serious attention

given to the strike movement. It is rightly considered an indicator.

degree of social crisis experienced by society, depth and breadth

development of the revolutionary consciousness of the masses that in the war

may have a decisive influence on the fate of the whole country. In this context

economic strikes seem “less valuable”, but they serve

indicator of the severity of the current economic situation.

All cases of workers’ performances that were in the Oryol province in the years

World War II, had an economic basis. Some of them were caused

lack of specific food products, others general

workers’ dissatisfaction with their financial situation. These cases

concentrated on the enterprises Maltsevskogo joint stock company

located in the Bryansk district. The main actors in such

the situation turned out to be workers and the administration of the joint stock company, from

action strategies which depended on the state of the working question.

  GARF, f.102, OO, op. 277, d.341, p.54, l.3. Report of the assistant chief of the OGUU in Bryansk and Karachevsky

counties to the head of the OGU. 03.07. 1916

Everywhere in factories and factories of the joint stock company

practiced selling coupons from factory stores and rations shops

food and essential goods for workers

cheap prices44. Violation of this which was of great importance for

trade workers became the main cause of discontent

workers in the first period of the war. Lack or shortage of products in

factory shops forced them to demand a pay rise for

in order to be able to acquire everything you need on the market.

In the second half of 1914 among the workers of the Bryansk district

a hot-patriotic feeling prevailed, expressed not only on

in words, and not even in donations, 45 but in the awareness of the state

the importance of their work and a certain responsibility that imposes on

them this importance. Execution of orders was put at the forefront, disputes with

administration, the struggle to improve their situation, were postponed until

the end of the country’s extreme period, i.e. until the end of the war. Before

the end of 1914, there was not a single strike (the last time Bryansk

the factory was on strike July 12-14, 1914)

46. And subsequently, when living conditions

forced the Bryansk workers to look for ways to improve them, work on defense

continued to be considered of paramount importance and served for

working argument in asserting their demands. The workers believed

that it is in the interests of the state to meet them and create the most

favorable conditions for their work. Sending into the army was not perceived as

punitive measure, punishment for disobedience and violation of order. Call

It was a natural consequence of the termination of the delay in connection with

dismissal from the factory, and, like among other mass categories of the population,

considered an inevitable necessity.

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Since January 1, 1916, the Board of Maltsev Joint Stock Company, going 
meeting the needs of the workers, decided, until the end of the military 
time to increase wages by 5% and give out to workers and family members, 
dependent on them, ration of products at cheaper prices. AT 
If there are not enough products in food stores, their 
It was proposed to receive next month, or receive this month 
cash compensation for the difference between the reduced price and the market price60. 
However, this step could not fully satisfy the workers, since did not give 
sufficient guarantees of their food supply. Already January 9 
58 GARF, f.102, OO, op.245, d.167, h. 54, l.8. Report on the political situation and the state of affairs in Oryol 
provinces. 05.01. 1916 
In the same place, d.9, p.54-B, l.14. 59 GARF, f.102, OO, op.245, d.167, h. 54, l.4.Report of the Chief of OGUU. 06.12. 1915 

workers of the Raditsky Carriage Works turned to the administration with 
asking the factory to sell them flour at the pre-war price, 
cereal, meat and salt. In addition, they demanded a 15% increase in salary. AT 
mid-January, the administration granted their request61. March 15 200 
workers of the Znebersk bottle factory Maltsevskogo joint-stock 
societies stopped working, demanding higher wages, and after two 
days back to work on the same conditions62. April 112 went on strike 
a man from the paint shop of the Raditsky Carriage Works, and on 2 May until 
100 workers of the assembly shop and 40 hammermen from the blacksmith shop. They 
put forward economic demands63. 

Ivot glass factory owned by Maltsevsky 
joint-stock company was closed after May 9, 1916 its 
the masters quit their jobs and filed a wage request with the directorate 
boards In the summer-autumn of 1916 at the enterprises of the Maltsevsky Joint-Stock Company 
societies in the Bryansk district had short-term and partial 
strikes at the Chernyatinsk glass factory (twice in July and in September) 
and the Bytoshevsky iron foundry (September, November). Workers demanded 
to ensure the receipt of products from factory shops and increase their salaries. 
Twice the factories stopped because of the strikes of teenage apprentices, 
demanding higher wages. Afterreceiptofworkproducts 
resumed; wageincreasesworkers failed65

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Close-up picture of hands writing in the business dairy.

In February, the work of a female worker of three penkreprepalny institutions was left

in Trubchevsk and workers of the local oil mill. They all demanded

wage increases, but their not achieved. The “instigators” were

brought to administrative responsibility67. Spring 1916

accompanied by the revival of the economic movement of workers, which arose in

different areas of the province. On March 7, 16 day laborers stopped work in Bolkhov

tobacco factory, demanding higher wages. By evening they reached

agreement with the owner to increase payment by 10 kopecks per day68. In April

a strike at the Yelets tobacco factory was held69. After the celebration of Easter

Karachev’s penkreprepalschiki demanded that the owners of the plants raise

salary of 70 kopecks a day, which they were denied. April 18-19 they are

went on strike and then returned to work in general order70. At the end of April

there was a short-term economic strike at the Bryansk arsenal71.

The largest center of the labor movement in 1916 remained

Bryansk plant. Events at this huge diversified enterprise

66 Ibid., L. 20-21, 45ob. Information about the mood of the population in the Bolkhov district in January 1916. 67 Ibid., L. 68. Information about the mood of the population in Trubchevsk district for February 1916. 68 Ibid., L.41. Report of the Bolkhovsky district police officer. 69 Ibid., L.188. Information about themood of the population in Yeletsky district for April 1916. 70 Ibid., L.151-152. Information about the mood of the population in Karachevsky county in April 1916


were one of the most significant cases of strike activity in

Russia during the war. For two months, the work of the Bryansk plant

was suspended. The eventful strike falls into two parts:

from March 21 to 30 and from April 25 to May 23.

It should be noted that the police were timely informed.

about a plant strike coming up. Having received such information, the bailiff

Bryansk plant took control of its territory by the policeman72. After

one after another, police officers left the work shop, and on March 24

the plant stopped 73.

Among the main reasons for the strike, the governor called

news reports about the strike at the Putilov factory, in which

the rise in prices was mentioned, and the fact of sending was ignored.

to the front of the guilty74. The appearance of impunity added to the workers

determination and perseverance, so even a show of strength

produced by the police did not shake their intentions to seek from

administration reviewing rates. Worker demands

were economic in nature and boiled down to higher wages

in proportion to earnings, improved terms of employment and food


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However, the workers of the Bryansk plant were not satisfied with the achievements


and on April 26 they stopped working again. They refused to elect

representatives to negotiate, “so that they would not be swept away by comrade

prosecutor and judicial investigator 82. The factory was again sent

senior adviser to the provincial government and senior factory inspector

together with the district inspector. They concluded that the fastest

way to stop the strike immediate satisfaction with the management of the plant

There, l.32. Governor’s telegram to the Police Department. 28.03. 1916 80 The specific increase in prices depended on the category of worker and the type of work performed, and not on the size

wages, as suggested by the workers. The distribution of allowances should have been the factory management

together with the elders who were to be elected. Regardless of the timing of the increase in

this or that type of work, it was calculated from the second half of March. GAOO, f.580, art.1, d.6168,


The announcement of the director of the Bryansk plant workers. 03/27/1916

In the same place, l. To the interpretation of the Announcement of the Director of the Bryansk Plant of 27 March 1916 by the Assembly

authorized workers 29.03. 1916 81 GAOO, f.580, art.1, d.6168, l.166-167. Letter from the Head of the Minsk Military District to the Governor.

02.05. 1916 82 Ibid., L. 24-25. 83 Ibid., Pp.92-94. The report of the governor in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. 29.04. 1916 232

Factory Inspector of the Moscow Factory District84. ABOUT

the strike was notified of the Chairman of the Maltsev Joint Stock Company,

Chief of the Main Artillery Directorate85.

Even a senior factory inspector admitted the workers’s demands were very

moderate, caused by wartime conditions, however

plant management and administration Maltsevskogo joint stock company, not

refusing wage indexation, recognizing its fairness and

timeliness, did not want to act under pressure from the workers.

Having resorted to the use of various administrative levers, she

sought to secure freedom of action in the future.

At the suggestion of the chairman of the joint stock company, on May 3

announced a half to two-fold increase in payments to those who did not receive

food from factory shops. At the same time everyone was asked

get to work. Unsatisfied expected calculation. After

workers ignored this requirement; the plant was closed86. By order

Minister of War to carry out activities to restore

plant in Bezhitsu arrived empowered with special powers authorized

Special meeting on the factory business of the Moscow district, General

Cherdyntsev. The general did not meet with the workers, limiting himself to communication

with members of the plant.

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After the strike, the number of workers at the plant decreased by 1/3, and

in the steel and molotovoy workshop, from the performance of which

the activity of the projectile and grenade workshops depended almost by half.

Personnel to replenish the composition of the workers was not. In view of this has been increased

working hours. From the three-shift operation workshops

went to work in two shifts. Combined with harsh working conditions it

adversely affected the health of workers and productivity.

Gradually revised upward all rates. However,

since the second half of 1916, due to a lack of materials, workers often

left without work100. From February 6, 1917, the Bryansk Plant at 3/4

stopped due to lack of coal. Shells production was completely

stopped. During the forced shutdown of the plant, wages are not

paid. The fact that the stop occurred before

Carnival, the last days of which traditionally were weekends, reduced

alarm workers. Yet they expressed surprise that the plant, completely

working for defense, left without coal. The workers blamed the administration, in

that it did not supply the plant with fuel, although the coal purchased in the south did not

reached due to the requisitions on the railroad101. Bryansk leader

the nobility sent a telegram about the situation at the plant in the highest name,

Chairman of the State Council and the State Duma, member

State Council from the Oryol province and the chairman of the military industrial complex A.I. Guchkovu.

100 Ibid, l.201.

In the same place, l.209. Telegram of the Bryansk district police officer. 23.05. 1916

In the same place, l.252. The message of the chief of OGUU to the governor. 15.07. 1916 101 GARF, f.102, OO, op.247, d.20, h. 54, l.1. Report of the Head of Food in the Empire in

Police Department. 10.02. 1917 102 GARF, f.102, D-4, op.246, d.48 h.8, l.9. Vedomosti on the mood of the population in February 1917.


In December 1916, the master of the Chernyatin glass factory (150

man) twice stopped work on Sundays, demanding to do

Sunday is a day off, but were forced to start work on

former conditions. In mid-January 1917, decided to strike

workers of the service of the 250 verst Polessky narrow-gauge railway,

owned by Maltsevskoy joint-stock company. January 13, train

brigades refused to conduct freight trains, and they stood idle for a long time on

stations. The center of the strike was located in the village of Ludinki, Kaluga province.

From there, workers arrived to present management with their demands.

The chief commander proposed to return to work and send for

negotiations of workers’ representatives, butthey refused to send those because of

fears of punitive measures. The maiequirement that they put forward,

there was an equation in rights and economic status with rail

employees, as well as improved workingconditions. The situation repeated 16

January, and the next day, after unsuccessful negotiations, the movement for

the railroad was discontinued. By evening, mutual understanding was found and

movement restored. Perere